Archive for the Peru Treasures Category

MARTIN CHAMBI, Indigenous Peruvian Photographer

Posted in Peru, Peru Art, Peru Treasures, photography on January 22, 2012 by Listen Recovery

Martín Chambi Jiménez or Martín Chambi de Coaza, (Puno, Perù – November 5, 1891 – Cuzco, September 13, 1973) was a photographer, originally from southern Peru.

For more than twenty years, Martín Chambi balanced his successful studio business with extensive travels outside of Cuzco to photograph archaeological sites, landscapes, and indigenous communities.
Chambi’s early reputation was based on his participation in two distinctly different photographic traditions. His adoption of conventions derived from European art photography, particularly the stylized effects of Pictorialism and natural sky-light in studio portraiture, formed the foundation for his studio’s commercial success and his prominence in local salon competitions and industrial fairs of the day.
Chambi quickly came to the forefront in the documentation of his own indigenous culture. He undoubtedly received significant support and encouragement in this work from members of Cuzco’s Indigenista movement. In turn, his work and presence, as an artist of direct Indian descent, photographing their meetings and listening to their discussions, surely reaffirmed their intellectual programs and lent a sense of visual authenticity to the movement.

Between 1920 and 1950 Chambi amassed a comprehensive collection of archaeological sites, native peoples, and views of Cuzco that was widely published as well as presented throughout South America.
Many of the most fascinating pictures in his archive were apparently unknown during his lifetime – some because they fell outside the interests of Indigenismo, others because of the limited artistic conventions then in vogue, and many because of their commercial origin.

Significant ongoing research and publication on this unusual period still need to be realized in order to clarify Chambi’s artistic contribution in the world of photography.

Chambi was an Indigenist photographer — the first to photograph his people as seen through their own eyes. Chambi himself emphasized that status in 1936, on the occasion of an exhibition in Santiago and Viña del Mar:

“I have read that in Chile it is thought that Indians have no culture, that they are uncivilized, that they are intellectually and artistically inferior when compared to whites and Europeans. More eloquent than my opinion, however, are graphic testimonies. It is my hope that impartial and objective witnesses will examine this evidence. I feel that I am a representative of my race; my people speak through my photographs.”

Martín Chambi

Martín Chambi was the first to photograph his race with a postcolonial eye. When Martín Chambi arrived in Cuzco, the ancient Incan capital, the richest and most splendid among American pre-Columbian cities, was experiencing a slight demographic recovery following the dramatic population decline.
It was Chambi who had the greatest international diffusion, and he who has left us the most personal, magical, profound, and dazzling work among all Peruvian photographers and maybe of all Latin American photographers.
Martín Chambi’s images laid bare the social complexity of the Andes. Those images place us in the heart of highland feudalism, in the haciendas of the large landholders, with their servants and concubines, in the colonial processions of contrite and drunken throngs. Chambi’s photographs capture it all: the weddings, fiestas, and first communions of the well-to-do; the drunkenness and poverty of the poor along with the public events shared by both. That is why, surely without intending it, Chambi became in effect the symbolic photographer of his race, transforming the telluric voice of Andean man, his millenary melancholy, his eternal neglect, his quintessentially Peruvian, human, Vallejo-like pain into the truly universal.

“One day Chambi will be recognized as one of the most coherent and profound creators photography has given this century.”

Edward Ranney

BLACK SUGAR / FAR FEN (Perù Band bio) Eng./Span.

Posted in Black Sugar, Los Far Fen, Peru Funk, Peru Treasures on November 24, 2011 by Listen Recovery

Black Sugar, the brainchild of Victor “Coco” Salazar and  Miguel “Chino” Figueroa, was formed in 1969 under the name Los Far Fen, mainly because the group had a Farfisa and a Fender amplifiers as their only electronic amplification equipment.

Los Far Fen recorded three 45 rpm records with six tunes:original compositions, pop tunes and ballads. Three of those tracks, featured on this CD, show the talented arrangements of “Coco” Salazar and the inspired organ and keyboard solos of “Chino” Figueroa; also determined the future musical direction of the group and their natural ability to play Latin Funk.

In 1970 the group was given the name of Black Sugar by Jaime Delgado Aparicio, a jazz piano player and arranger that at the time was the artistic director of Sono Radio, a Peruvian label.

Delgado Aparicio, recognizing the talent of the young musicians, gave the group an opportunity to record a long play in 1971.  Original compositions like “Too Late”, “Viajecito” and “The Looser” made this LP an immediate best seller. Black Sugar “Black Sugar” was sold in all South America and there was a release of the LP in USA by a Miami based label.
The success of Black Sugar was not due to luck or marketing.

Their members were some of the finest , if not the best, young musician from Peru.  The arranger, “Coco” Salazar was also a fantastic guitar player; Miguel “Chino” Figueroa was the composer of almost all the original songs by Black Sugar, besides playing keyboards, he was also an inspired organ player; Jose Cruz was one of the most promising young jazz drummers; it is hard not to mention the rest of the musicians, players like Roberto Valdez, Luis Calixto, Antonio Ginocchio, etc… deserve an extensive description of their abilities.

The last musician I want to mention is Coco Lagos, king of Latin Percussion in Peru in the 70’ s, his playing is featured in all the songs.  Black Sugar recorded a second LP in 1972 and their last recording, one 45 rpm in 1978.  The second LP features more original composition than the first one, also the playing and the soloing show musical maturity.  Tracks like : “Fuego”, “Kathy”, “Checan”, “All your Love“, the beautiful arrangement to Stevie Wonder “Don’ t You Worry About a Thing”, etc….make this LP a jewel.

Definitely their style is unique, with influences from groups like Tower of Power, Blood Sweat and Tears and Chicago mixed with a Latin Funk flavor.
At the end, the music speaks by itself, Black Sugar was a world class latin funk band.


Black Sugar, rehearsing in Lima

Black Sugar’s Singles

Black Sugar LP I (1970-71)

Black Sugar LP II (1972)

Band Members:

LUIS CALIXTO (trombón)
PEDRO GOSICHA ( saxo alto y flauta)
JORGE CHAVEZ (saxo, tenor y flauta)
COCO LAGOS (percusión)
MIGUEL SALAZAR (percusión latina)
MIGUEL“CHINO” FIGUEROA (organo-piano-sintizador \ moog)
JOSE “ARROZ” CRUZ  (batería)
VICTOR “COCO” LOPEZ SALAZAR (guitarra electrica, Arreglos y Dirección Musical)


Spanish Version:

Black Sugar, una idea original de Víctor “Coco” Salazar y Miguel “Chino” Figueroa, se formó en 1969 bajo el nombre de Los Far Fen, sobre todo porque el grupo tenía un órgano Farfisa y amplificadores Fender como su único equipo de amplificación electrónica.

Los Far Fen grabaron tres discos de 45 rpm con seis temas: composiciones originales, canciones pop y baladas. Tres de esos temas, que figuran en este CD, muestran el talento en los arreglos de “Coco” Salazar y el órgano inspirado y solos de teclado de “Chino ” Figueroa, también determinó la futura dirección musical del grupo y su capacidad natural para el Latin Funk.

En 1970 el grupo recibió el nombre de Black Sugar por Jaime Delgado Aparicio, un pianista de jazz y arreglista que en ese momento era el director artístico de Sono Radio.

Delgado Aparicio, reconociendo el talento de los jóvenes músicos, le dio al grupo la oportunidad de grabar un disco de larga duración en 1971. Composiciones originales como “Too Late “, “viajecito” y “The Looser” hicieron de este disco un best seller inmediato. “El LP “Black Sugar” fue vendido en toda América del Sur y hubo un lanzamiento en EE.UU. con una etiqueta con sede en Miami.

El éxito de Black Sugar no se debió a la suerte o la comercialización. Sus miembros fueron algunos de los mejores jóvenes músicos de Perú. El arreglista fue “Coco” Salazar, también un guitarrista fantástico; Miguel “Chino ” Figueroa fue el compositor de casi todas las canciones originales de Black Sugar, además de tocar los teclados, también fue un organista inspirado; José Cruz fue uno de los bateristas jóvenes más prometedoras del jazz. Es difícil no mencionar al resto de músicos, como Roberto Valdez, Calixto Luis, Antonio Ginocchio, etc .. merecen una descripción más detallada de sus capacidades.

El último músico que quiero mencionar es Coco Lagos, rey de la percusión latina en el Perú en los 70’s, su forma de tocar aparece en todas las canciones. Black Sugar registró un segundo LP en 1972 y su última grabación, un 45 rpm en 1978. El segundo LP cuenta con más composiciónes originales que el primero, también muestra el resultado de la madurez musical. Temas como: Fuego, Kathy, Checan, todo tu amor, el hermoso arreglo a Stevie Wonder “No te preocupes por nada”, etc. hacen de este disco una joya.

Definitivamente su estilo es único, con influencias de grupos como Tower of Power, Blood, Sweat and Tears y Chicago se mezcla con un sabor Latin Funk. Al final, la música habla por sí mismo, Black Sugar fue una banda de funk latino de clase mundial.

George Bonilla


Posted in LP downloads, Peru Psych, Peru Treasures on February 18, 2011 by Listen Recovery

Telegraph Ave LP < (link)

In 1970, Telegraph Avenue were formed after lead guitarist Bo Ichikawa returned to Peru, after having stayed half a year in San Francisco, California, where he had been exposed to the vivid local “hippie rock culture”. On his return he assembled all kinds of American influences, in a very convincing powerful way, with songs in English, but with ideas for arrangements which were more typical for the best Peruvian bands from those days.

The full arrangements are incredibly contrasting. Nowadays it would be hard to find any other example of so many arrangements without any overlapping or blurring note, which is a combination of basically bass, acoustic guitars, drums, vocals and vocal harmonies with lots of rather exotic percussion. It is because there were two percussionists in the band. The first percussionist was Walo Carrilo (drums, percussion, maracas, tambourine), who, before Telegraph Avenue, had been a bandleader from Los Holy’s. This previous, mostly instrumental group had been the earliest movement towards psychedelia in the mid ‘60s. They made one album called “Sueno Sicodélico”, in a conceptual – style, as well as several singles.

The additional percussionist is called Chachi Lujan (acoustic guitar, bongos, piano). The final member is the bass player Alex Nathanson (who also plays acoustic guitar, clavichord, piano). The styles of the songs are very varied, have blues-rock, Californian feelings, influences of soul-rock and sixties flavoured styles. The “psychedelic” element is rather unique and can only be heard in the top Peruvian bands.

Telegraph Ave 1971, Lima Perù.

NICOMEDES SANTA CRUZ, Afroperuvian Legend. “Marinera, Festejo Y Lando” (Videos)

Posted in Afro Sounds, Nicomedes Santa Cruz, Peru Music Icon, Peru Negro, Peru Treasures, video archives on February 13, 2011 by Listen Recovery

ERNESTO “CHE” GUEVARA 1st time in Lima. (info from La Pastera “Museo Del CHE”) blog links

Posted in Che Ernesto Guevara, Peru, Peru Treasures on December 11, 2010 by Listen Recovery

In Peru, Guevara was impressed by the old Inca civilization, forced to ride in trucks with Indians and animals after “The Mighty One” broke down. As a result he begins to develop a fraternity with the indigenous campesinos.

In March 1952 they both arrived at the Peruvian Tacna. After a discussion about the poverty in the region, Guevara refers in his notes to the words of Cuban poet José Marti: “I want to link my destiny to that of the poor of this world.” In May they arrived in Lima, Peru and during this time Guevara met doctor Hugo Pesce, a Peruvian scientist, director of the national leprosy program, and an important local Marxist. They discuss several nights until the early morning and years later Che identified these conversations as being very important for his evolution in attitude towards life and society.

Hugo Pesce (17 June 1900–26 July 1969) was a Peruvian physician and left-wing activist.

Pesce was born in Tarma, and studied medicine at the University of Genoa in Italy. He first practised in rural parts of the Peruvian Andes, where he was radicalised by his experiences of the debilitating effects of poverty.  He later specialised in treatment of leprosy.  He and other Latin Americans disagreed with the recommendations of the 1938 World Leprosy Congress in Cairo, and agreed a different process in Três Corações, which Pesce implemented successfully at Andahuaylas in 1938 and the Apurímac Region in 1940. The 1948 World Leprosy Congress in Havana endorsed the Latin-American strategy; Pesce was later a member of the World Health Organization’s expert committee on the disease.  In 1945 he joined the faculty of the National University of San Marcos, where he was professor of tropical medicine from 1953 till his retirement in 1967.  In 2002, Pesce was among four individuals and two groups named as “Heroes of public health in Peru”

“The character that wrote these notes died when he stepped on Argentine soil again, the one who orders and improves them, “me”, is not me; at least, not the same inner me. This wandering through our “Majuscule America” has changed me more than I had ever thought it would”.

Ernesto Guevara
“Entendámonos” from “Notas de viaje”

“To doctor Hugo Pesce, without knowing it perhaps, provoked a great change in my attitude towards life and society, with the same adventurous spirit as always, but channeled toward goals that are more harmonious with the needs of America. Fraternally.” Ernesto Guevara

In May, Guevara and Granado leave for the leper colony of San Pablo in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest, arriving there in June. During his stay Guevara complains about the miserable way the people and sick of that region have to live. Guevara also swam once from the side of the Amazon River where the doctors stayed, to the other side of the river where the leper patients lived, a considerable distance of two and a half miles. He describes how there were no clothes, almost no food, and no medication. However, Guevara was moved by his time with the lepers, remarking that:

“All the love and caring just consist on coming to them without gloves and medical attire, shaking their hands as any other neighbor and sitting together for a chat about anything or playing football with them.” Ernesto Guevara


BLACK SUGAR Walkin’ (not on the Vinyl LP) rare

Posted in Peru Psych, Peru Treasures on December 4, 2010 by Listen Recovery

This track is not part of the BLACK SUGAR 1971 LP, it was released as a side B on a 7″ single.  It was pressed as limited copies during the 1970’s,  45 rpm/7″ single was used for Promotional tracks on the radio.  This is one of the hardest 7″ of this genre in Perù to find… We’ll, here is the mp3 at least.  Enjoy!

Renz De Madrugada


TRUNK DRUM Afroperuano, REVIVE ancestral sounds (translated to english)

Posted in AFRO LATINOS, Instruments ads, Peru Negro, Peru Treasures, Preserving Culture on September 25, 2010 by Listen Recovery

The long trunk drum, former percussion instrument that had been extinguished, was rescued by the Afro-Peruvian Museum of Zana and can now be shocking to hear your sounds, thus overcoming the silence. The work was completed in 2010 Fiestas Patrias. In this way the museum from the plains of northern Peru continues with the work of revaluation of ancient musical instruments that were forgotten. The drum was used stem from the colonial era in most settlements of Afro Peruvians. Gradually disappearing. Peru was losing its African roots drums like a long agony. Among other factors, modernity destroyed a significant part of our traditions. The vast majority of peoples of African descent in the Americas retained their old drums. Peru and had forgotten.
From November 2009 to date, the research team of Afro-Peruvian Museum has conducted an intensive work of re-evaluation and dissemination of percussion instruments such as the “Czech”, the “Angara”, the “jug drum” and the “scratch scratch” or “oak” guayaquil cane.
The long trunk drum, single patch, rebuilt by the Afro-Peruvian Museum of Zana is one meter long with a diameter of 38 centimeters. It is made of a eucalyptus tree, which has a hardwood. The drum was made in a rustic way of Zana Valley countryside. The main job of making the opening or “hollow” and shape the drum was the work of Rodolfo Zevallos Oliva 72-year-old African-American to consider an experienced rural artisan Zana Valley. The task was arduous. It began on June 15 and ended the first phase on 25 July 2010. For the large size of the trunk and its hardness, Mr Zevallos was long iron tools (new type of chisels) to hollow out the wood and used a wooden mallet as a hammer sapote. Used five old rustic tools. He left around the trunk hollowed out and ready for the final phase.

The finish long trunk drum included tightening the leather. This work was carried out by young Zaner Emmanuel Briones Carlos Urbina and experience working with rural and traditional music afrocosteña practice. They were responsible for putting on a goat leather, rings, the halter and wedges to temper. They joined two generations and to revive their ancestral art. The work was culminated precisely the July 28, 2010.
The two young men all participated in the month of May this year in a previous valuable experience to rebuild the earthen jar drum.
Various specialists and Caitro Soto, “Pititi” Nicomedes Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Fernando Rafael Romero, Tompkins, and “Chalena” Vasquez confirmed the old drum musical use Afro trunk. Their extinction was in the first half of the twentieth century. William Tompkins gathered in Chincha testimony from people who remembered having seen the last drum trunk around the year 1950 stating that there was placed vertically to be tapping.
The African traditional drums that came to Peru from the time of the Spanish conquest had a variety of shapes, sizes and were made from a variety of logs. In the ancient guilds, in the sheds of farms in the Palenque and in the groups festive drums sounded the ancient art and strength.
To recreate the ancient musical instruments, Afro-Peruvian Museum of Zana has used written sources, oral and iconography (paintings and drawings old). One of the most symbolic images has been a watercolor of Francisco “Pancho” Fierro, entitled “Follow the 1821 civic procession, in commemoration of the National Independence Day. At that time Afro-Peruvians took to the streets with their musical instruments also struggling for their own freedom. Just at this painting you can see the drum long trunk, which is loaded on the shoulders of two African descent. With that image references and other specialists in the field we have already concluded this new task.

There are three main objectives of rebuilding these valuable ancient musical instruments. First show and exhibit at the Museum of Afro-Peruvian cultural wealth Zaña of African descent with pieces of great historical value, second re-introduce these musical instruments in the contemporary art world and third Afro integrate with our drums to beat of feelings and sounds of the African Diaspora in the Americas. The drums unite the people from the continent of ebony.

In Africa it is traditional to use the drums with religious and artistic messages. Spirituality and feelings are transmitted through the percussion instruments, singing and dancing. In Peru in the nineteenth century were gradually disappearing, and disseminating religious rituals of African origin. For various reasons were disappearing rustic drums of African origin in Peru. Supposedly it had all ended in the first half of the twentieth century. The old Afro-Peruvian drum rustic trunk, had already passed into oblivion.

Just log drum returns and is reborn in the countryside where Zana lived and worked by men and women enslaved. The new generations are making great efforts to recover their ancient traditions of music, sounds and musical force of their ancestors. And so gradually returning the old drums that unite us with the ancient Africa and the descendants of enslaved 30 million Africans were forcibly transported to the Americas for four centuries. So now recovered joy. Rescuing ancient musical instruments of our ancestors could make a musical revolution in our country, because returning the spirits of the African diaspora with their drums and ancient sounds. Now with our clay jug drum and drum long trunk we meet with our great-grandparents who came from Africa. These musical pieces are available to each and everyone who wants to revive our ancient arts.

Zaña, Peru, July 28, 2010
Museum of Afro-Peruvian Directorate, Zaña  < link to site

THE ROOTS OF CHICHA 2 released by Barbès Records; words by Renz De Madrugada

Posted in Peru Cumbia, Peru Psych, Peru Treasures on September 8, 2010 by Listen Recovery

Como se dice… Aaaaaahhhhh!… Some type of Alfredito Linares feel “opening pores music guitar shock drunkenness AMish morning with your calentao or fried yam and chicharron sound”…  That’s basically how I feel when I hear Cumbias Peruanas “Chicha”.  Ever since my trips in the “micros buses” or a “tico” (mini taxi) to Centro de Lima or Surco to visit Perù Negro… Cumbias have been in my eardrums since I was a “chibolo”.  The pasajes (streets) in Lima will always fascinate me, from its sounds of street vendors in the mercados (street markets) to the busy streets in Mesa Redonda or Gamarra (fashion city of Lima).  Chicha, Cumbias Andinas or what ever you want to call it, will sound louder than any genre in Perù and the reason number one is! It’s massive Andino and Provincial Population.

Chicha, Cumbias Andinas and Amazonicas don’t really come entirely from Lima.  Cumbia Andino is mainly from the Andes Region from north of Cajamarca to South of Puno & the “Great” Lake Titicaca and Cumbia Amazonica comes from the Jungle Region, from the North Dept. of Loreto city Iquitos to the South Jungle in Puerto Maldonado. Population has been migrating  from the 1970s to present times to Lima, making Cumbia music one of the most performed and sold genre in the Capital of Perù.

ROOTS OF CHICHA 2 takes us to an encore journey from Lima to the Andean Region ending up in Iquitos.  Ranil also known as Profesor Raul Llerena natal from Belèn, Iquitos is feature in this LP. His unique composition “Mala Mujer” will make you move your limbs and still your soul towards any dance floor.  Grupo Celeste, Chacalòn and Los Chapis are also here.  If you are an enthusiastic student about the History of Cumbias from Latin America, this is definitely a must have for the collection.  Barbès does again with a nice research and shares from their archives and collection. VIVA EL PERU CARAJO!

I am very pleased to see the music from my country come to America via Chicha, Cumbias, Salsa and hopefully Afro Peruvian.  Is been an honor to work with such prestigious entities like Barbès Records, Masstropicas, Pablo Iglesias, Dj Andujar and the homies at Mas Exitos in L.A. who been bringing the nostalgic feel of Discotecas & Sonideros to our territory.

Perù Cumbias is here to stay!

and ROOTS OF CHICHA is just another affirmation for my exclamation…

Renz De Madrugada

A Comerrrrr!

below are 6 tracks for your listening pleasure, courtesy of Barbès Records & PressjunkiePR

Grupo Celeste & Chacalòn

Los Chapis w Chicha drink (corn fermented)



Posted in Books, Ethnomusicology, Music Negra, Peru, Peru Negro, Peru Treasures, Preserving Culture, South America on August 28, 2010 by Listen Recovery

Chalena Rosa Elena Rodriguez Vasquez is one of the most renowned musicologists in Peru. His text “Musical Practice of the Black Population in Peru” was published in 1982 and won the prestigious House of Musicology of the Americas Cuban organization reports, investigates, promotes, recognizes and publishes the work of scholars of literature and arts.

Chalena interest lies in the study of Afro-Peruvian holiday traditions found in El Carmen and other nearby areas in the provinces of Cañete and Chincha, areas where the black population has a significant percentage in our country. These traditions are studied from field surveys and documented with historical and sociological analysis that supports the first part of the book. In its first pages the author also reflects on the impact it has had on these artistic process of cultural commodification and corporate image.

The introduction of the book shows the clear line that she draws between the spontaneous and commercial:

“… We encounter many difficulties to see that we had left a false hypothesis. The intense activity of many folk music groups of so-called black, Negro or Afro, Black … as Peru had made us think that this music scenario was also presented in a spontaneous and intense practice at the grassroots level … From the first interviews we could see that at spontaneous, this practice rarely performed musical. Understanding spontaneity as an activity outside the framework of official parastatal or commercial. But the musical practice we found it was mostly within that framework: the commercial.
Then … we headed south, Cañete and Chincha, where the percentage of black population is higher … toured villages and farms, whose residents highlighted that “it hardly makes the music”, “that was old days” or “no money for holidays.” However, we note that extinction is not total, but the musical practice is so sporadic that it is necessary to stay and the place of many months at least … While in this search, we found in El Carmen, Chincha near town and in other towns in the same area … a demonstration that has great effect that is made for Christmas time: the Dance of Negritos (pack of Negritos) “(p. 9-10)

The first part of the book shows a brief history of African slavery with demographic data, we highlight that Peru is not ethnically African populations became established (different cultures) and therefore have brought musical expertise of various kinds. It shows how the Spanish banned the musical practices of African and regrettable that means having only purely literary data without a reference to the “sound phenomenon” of this music, it then would enter a stage of near disappearance.

The text that we detailed the nineteenth century, dance and music were often a tool to achieve social advancement and recognition, because sometimes people of African descent came to be masters of dance of the ruling class. However, the musical practice was separate parties: the ruling class dance in the “grand salon”, the waltz, mazurka, Jack, minuet, etc.., While dancing classes in villages and alleyways, musical forms such as zamacueca, INGA, the panalivios, the gannet, etc. (p. 24) concludes this section stating that black musical forms in Peru, are the product resulting from a social practice in which a battle being waged between social classes. Notes also emerges years later the so-called criollismo, new cultural product that would not be entirely black groups, but the lower classes of the Peruvian coast.

Chalena also discusses the current state of music, since 1956, when it appears the Company PANCHO FIERRO (first organized group to present a show of black music) and in which there was no difference between the “afro” and “native”, since in the social practice of the twentieth century there is no difference between black and Creole, and mentioned that the music called “Negro” was not only of blacks but of the lower classes of society. The author then shows how to use the term born “Afro” in the 1960s.

Chalena After we made notes as the professionalization of black folklore, where it notes that participants in the groups of “black art” learning to dance in them, in the trials, which shows little or no musical practice with spontaneously. “The same applies to people coming from south of Lima (Cañete, Chincha). Many of the groups that make up Lima, are people in those places … We emphasize this because we consider important to note the lack of spontaneous social practice of music-of the people, even those with high percentage of black population. ” (P. 43)

The author describes a general way of structuring music shows “black”:

– First is the need for the product is “folk”, present to some extent “the most authentic black folk” of those events that oral tradition and continuity did not reach total extinction as is the case of native stomping practiced in various communities of Chincha and Cañete, as well as others that were not intense practice at the grassroots level: alcatraz, Inga, bull kills, etc.

– On the other hand is the reconstruction of some dances that apparently were already obsolete and Land or Zamacueca. Another dance that was in disuse is the celebration, which originated in the part of the choreography is known today is credited to Don Porfirio Vasquez.

– A third aspect to consider would be innovation, aesthetic value is achieved by market needs. Chalena emphasizes “the performance of a pseudo rituals in which one notes the influence of the ballets of Senegal, Guinea and Cuba, that although he recognizes an undeniable aesthetic value, are quite questionable, because at present as folk are completely distorting reality and spreading a false image of the black in Peru “(p. 46)

– Finally, there is a type of recreation, innovating the instrumentalization or incorporating instruments fell into disuse. Such is the case of the reco-reco, according to Carlos Hayre instrument was brought to Brazil by Nicomedes Santa Cruz.

The second part of the book is devoted to a thorough musicological study of dance in their little black pack of butt shapes, such as spontaneous practice of that population.

Within the population cañetana interviewed for this book, we mention Angel Donayre (son), Guillermo Donayre, Carlos Donayre, RA Manzo, Francisco Timor, David Fernandez, Toribio Sánchez, Flora Ruiz, Adel Chumpitaz, Pancho Benavente, Benavente Augusta, Alberto Ruiz, Gregory Cubas, Jose Fernandez, Isabel Bravo, José Centeno and Cesareo Zegarra.

Eduardo Campos Yataco

(Spanish version from Cañeteartenegro blogspot)

Tania Cirilo, 11 years “Llorando mi guitarra” PERÙ (Kids Talented World)

Posted in Peru Treasures, video archives on June 12, 2010 by Listen Recovery